This collection is exclusively made up of theses, dissertations, and project reports submitted as a requirement for completing a graduate degree at UPR-Mayagüez.
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Browsing Theses & Dissertations by Subject "3-D sensor"
Aguirre Narváez, Alexis J.; Malik, Sudhir; College of Arts and Sciences - Sciences; Santana, Samuel; Marrero-Soto, Pablo J.; Department of Physics; Narciso, Flor
The HL-LHC conditions of instantaneous peak luminosities up to 7.5 x 1034 cm-2 s-1 and an integrated luminosity of the order of 300 fb-1/year would result in 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of 2.3 x 1016 neq/cm2 and a total ionizing dose (TID) of 12MGy (1.2 Grad) at the center of CMS, where its innermost component, the Phase-2 Pixel Detector will be installed. The detector would be capable of resisting the mentioned radiation dose, handle projected hit rates of 3GHz/cm2 at the lowest radius, be able to separate and identify particles in extremely dense collision debris, deal with a pileup of 140-200 collisions per bunch crossing and have high impact parameter resolution. This along with physics goals translates into requiring a detector design that is more highly granular, has thinner sensors and smaller pixels, and faster and radiation hard electronics. Until now, the planar sensor with pixel sizes six times smaller than currently used, and 3D pixel types are proposed to hold the above scenario. 3D sensors appear as a new alternative, offering several improvements compared to the planar sensors like faster charge collection, radiation hard, lower depletion voltage, among other things, however, these sensors are more prone to have a higher level of noise (lower signal to noise ratio). Thin sensors yield smaller signals but offer a less material budget. The work presented is based on the test-beam program at Fermilab designed to test sensors for the Phase-2 Pixel Detector. These sensors are bump bonded to PSI46dig readout chip (used currently with Phase-1 Detector). The sensors are tested with a 120 GeV/c proton beam at the Fermilab Meson Test-Beam Facility with a telescope made of eight planes of pixel modules to reconstruct tracks of the charged particles passing through the sensors tested (referred to as Detector Under Test (DUT)). Using the data collected, each sensor is characterized doing analysis of its efficiency, spatial resolution, and charge collection, having the information necessary it possible to compare between different sensors with different sizes and manufacture brands.