Show simple item record

dc.contributor.advisorRivera-Vargas, Lydia I.
dc.contributor.authorSerrato-Díaz, Luz M.
dc.date.accessioned2018-11-17T22:00:05Z
dc.date.available2018-11-17T22:00:05Z
dc.date.issued2010
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11801/1364
dc.description.abstractEl rambután, Nephelium lappaceum L., y el longán, Dimocarpus longan L., son frutales exóticos tropicales que han ganado auge en el mercado internacional despertando interés en los agricultores de Puerto Rico. Sin embargo, es común encontrar en el campo lesiones en los diferentes órganos y enfermedades que ocurren durante el almacenaje de las frutas. El desconocimiento de los patógenos que afectan las frutas exóticas en Puerto Rico es un aspecto limitante en el manejo de los huertos y de las frutas en post-cosecha. Con el objetivo de identificar los hongos causales de enfermedades en frutas tropicales exóticas en campo y almacenaje, se colectaron diferentes órganos de árboles de rambután y longán en el período comprendido de agosto a septiembre del 2008 y abril a mayo del 2009. Las muestras se tomaron de árboles de la colección de USDA-ARS ‘Tropical Agriculture Research Station’ (TARS) en Mayagüez, Estaciones Experimentales Agrícolas de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, así como de fincas comerciales y privadas localizadas en el noroeste, oeste, centro y suroeste de la isla. El tejido vegetal fue desinfestado superficialmente y transferido a agar de papa y dextrosa acidulado APDA. Un total de 765 aislados de hongos fueron obtenidos del tejido vegetal sintomático y asintomático. El 75.16% de los aislados encontrados corresponden a rambután y el 24.83% a longán. El 80% de los aislados se caracterizaron morfológicamente y 20% fueron confirmados molecularmente mediante la amplificación de la región ITS del rDNA, obteniéndose 81 secuencias de hongos asociados a frutales exóticos tropicales. Se identificaron 27 géneros de hongos, de los cuales 17 pertenecen al Filum Ascomycota y 10 son hongos mitospóricos donde no se conoce su fase sexual. De los 27 géneros encontrados 9 géneros fueron patogénicos al rambután y 5 al longán. Botyosphaeria rhodina fue el hongo más virulento, afectando ambos frutales causando lesiones en hojas, flores y frutos. Albonectria rigidiuscula y Phoma spp también fueron patógenos a los dos frutales exóticos tropicales presentando sintomatologías similares en inflorescencias, marchitez de la raquilla y momificación, respectivamente. Lasmenia sp., fue patogénico sólo a rambután afectando hojas, flores y frutos. Calonectria pseudospathiphylli, Fusarium chlamydosporum, Glomerella cingulata, Leuconectria clusiae, Pestalotiopsis virgatula, Phomopsis longicolla fueron patógenos de rambután causando necrosis de la fruta. Fusarium culmorum y Pestalotiopsis clavispora, fueron patógenos del longán afectando flores y frutos respectivamente. Las especies Calonectria pseudospathiphylli, Leuconectria clusiae y Lasmenia sp. son primeros reportes para Puerto Rico.
dc.description.abstractRambutan, Nephelium lappaceum L. and longan, Dimocarpus longan L., are exotic tropical fruits that have great importance in the international market, attracting great interest from farmers in Puerto Rico. However, it is common to find lesions in the different organs and diseases that occur during fruit storage. Ignorance of the pathogens that affect exotic fruits in Puerto Rico is a limiting aspect in the management of orchards and fruit post-harvest. To identify the causative agents of diseases in exotic tropical fruit in field and storage, different organs were collected from symptomatic and asymptomatic trees of rambutan and longan during the period from August to September 2008 and April to May 2009. Samples were taken from exotic fruit trees USDA-ARS 'Tropical Agriculture Research Station' (TARS) in Mayaguez, Agricultural Experiment Stations, University of Puerto Rico, commercial and private farms located at the northwest, west, central and southwest of the island. Plant tissue was superficially disinfected and transferred to potato dextrose agar acidified (APDA) to promote the development of fungi associated with injuries. A total of 765 fungal isolates were obtained from plant tissue examined. Seventy five percent of isolates were from Rambutan and 24.83% to longan. Eighty percent of the isolates were characterized morphologically and 20% of the isolates were characterized molecularly by amplification of the rDNA ITS region. Eighty one DNA sequences of fungi associated with exotic tropical fruit were obtained. Twenty seven genera of fungi, 17 Ascomycetes and 10 mitosporic fungi were idnetified. Of the 27 genera identified, 9 were pathogenic to rambutan and 5 to longan. Botyosphaeria rhodina was the most pathogenic fungus, affecting both exotic tropical fruits, causing lesions on leaves, flowers and fruits. Albonectria rigidiuscula and Phoma spp. were also pathogenic to both exotic tropical fruit, with similar symptomatology in inflorescences, rachis wilt and mummification respectively. Lasmenia sp. was pathogenic to rambutan leaves, flowers and fruits. Calonectria pseudospathiphylli, Fusarium chlamydosporum, Glomerella cingulata, Leuconectria clusiae, Pestalotiopsis virgatula, Phomopsis longicolla were pathogens causing necrosis of rambutan´s fruits. Fusarium culmorum and Pestalotiopsis clavispora were pathogens affecting longan, flowers and fruits, respectively. Calonectria Pseudospathiphylli, Leuconectria clusiae and Lasmenia sp. species are first reports for Puerto Rico.
dc.language.isoesen_US
dc.subjectEnfermedadesen_US
dc.subjectFrutales exóticosen_US
dc.titleCaracterización morfológica, patogénica y molecular de hongos asociados a frutales exóticos tropicales, rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) y longán (Dimocarpus longan L.) en Puerto Ricoen_US
dc.typeThesisen_US
dc.rights.licenseAll rights reserveden_US
dc.rights.holder(c) 2010 Luz Miryam Serrato Díazen_US
dc.contributor.committeeEstévez, Consuelo
dc.contributor.committeeGoenaga, Ricardo
dc.contributor.representativeRivera, Luis
thesis.degree.levelM.S.en_US
thesis.degree.disciplineCrop Protectionen_US
dc.contributor.collegeCollege of Agricultural Sciencesen_US
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Crops and Agro-Environmental Sciencesen_US
dc.description.graduationYear2010en_US


Files in this item

Thumbnail

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

  • Theses & Dissertations
    Items included under this collection are theses, dissertations, and project reports submitted as a requirement for completing a degree at UPR-Mayagüez.

Show simple item record

All rights reserved
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as All Rights Reserved