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dc.contributor.advisorKubaryk, John M.
dc.contributor.authorMace, Christopher Edward
dc.description.abstractThe ability of the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) to acclimate to and survive in low salinity ground water from southwestern Puerto Rico was evaluated using post larval shrimp and well water from the Lajas Valley. Five well sites were selected. Salinity ranged from 0.7-9.8 parts per thousand (ppt). Concentrations of (Na, Cl, K, Ca, Mg, SO4, CO3, and Mn) were determined for each water source. Comparing this with data from results reported in 1991 indicate the deep aquifer (> 45 m) is stable. Eighteen day old post larvae (PL18) were used in 48 h bioassay acclimation experiments. Results were favorable in 2 of 5 well sites with survival ranging from > 99-0%. Survival was highest in low salinity waters (0.7-3.5 ppt). Potassium was deemed deficient in waters with low survival. Adjustment of the Na/K ratio was achieved by addition of potassium rich fertilizer. Two sites (salinities 6.7 and 9.8 ppt respectively) were tested with and without addition of salts (K2SO4 and KCl) to assess the role of Na to K ratios on 48 h survival of post larval shrimp. Survival was assessed in a second 48 h acclimation trial. The two well waters with nothing added served as controls. K levels raised to 3.6% of Na had > 99% survival and the controls had 0-18% survival over 48 h. Results were highly significant (ANOVA, p < 0.001) and were considered positive as the addition of K2SO4 and KCL ameliorated the mortality problems. Subsequently, a recirculating system (1154 L) was constructed to examine long-term survival. Water from well site # 2 (6.7 ppt) was used. The concentration of K to Na was raised to 3.6% by adding K2SO4 and shrimp were acclimated. Nursed juvenile shrimp (30 mm) were stocked into the system at a density of 0.32 shrimp / L. Shrimp lasted over one year in this system, and some grew to over 20 g indicating the feasibility of growing L. vannamei in these low salinity ground waters with proper compensation for low K content.en_US
dc.description.abstractPara evaluar la habilidad del camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei de aclimatarse y sobrevivir la bajo salinidad del agua de pozo, en el suroeste de Puerto Rico, se hicieron experimentos usando agua de pozo del Valle de Lajas. Seleccionamos 5 pozos. La salinidad de estos pozos fluctúa entre 0.7-9.8 partes por mil (ppt por sus siglas en ingles). Analizamos los minerales en el agua. Se determinó la concentración de los iones (Na, Cl, K, Ca, Mg, SO4, CO3, y Mn). Esto se comparó con data reportado en 1991 para concluir que los acuíferos profundos (> 45 m) están estable. Se usaron camaroncitos, cuya edad era 18 días después de ser post larva (PL18) para un experimento de aclimatación de 48 horas. El resultado fue favorable en 2 de 5 pozos. La sobre vivencia del PL fue buena > 99% en las aguas con salinidad baja (0.7 y 3.5 ppt). Se determinó que el elemento potasio (K) hacia falta en las muestras con baja sobre vivencia. Para subir la cantidad de K en las muestras, echamos abono rico en K; usando el sulfato de potasio (K2SO4) o el cloro de potasio (KCl). Estos dos pozos (6.7 y 9.8 ppt) se usaron para otro experimento, pero ahora con y sin las sales ajustadas. El experimento duró 48 horas y se calculo la sobre vivencia. El control contenía agua natural del pozo. Los resultados indican que con la adición del abono la sobre vivencia subió a > 99% lo cual es mucho mejor que el control en que murieron casi todos. En general, los resultados se consideran muy positivos y eran muy significativos (ANOVA, p < 0.001). Luego, se construyó un sistema de recirculación de 1154 L para examinar la sobre vivencia a largo plazo. Este sistema se llenó con agua del pozo # 2 (6.7 ppt). La concentración de K a Na se subió a 3.6% añadiendo K2SO4 y los camarones fueron aclimatados. Los 300 camarones jóvenes (30 mm) fueron sembrados a una densidad de 0.32 camarones / L. Los camarones duraron poco más de un año en el sistema y algunos alcanzaron hasta 20 g de peso, indicando que es viable usar agua del pozo para cultivar L. vannamei siempre cuando se compensa para la deficiencia de K.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipDepartment of Agriculture, Lajas sub-region; Cartagena wildlife refuge; UPR-RUM Lajas Experimental Agriculture; Farmers Inc.; CCWD; USGS; Pace Analytical Inc. San German, Puerto Rico; Sea Grant UPRMen_US
dc.subjectShrimp culture - Puerto Ricoen_US
dc.subjectMangrove forests - Effects on - Shrimp culture - Puerto Ricoen_US
dc.subjectLitopenaeus vannamei - Effect of - Ground water - Salinityen_US
dc.subject.lcshWhiteleg shrimp--Effect of salt on--Puerto Rico--Lajasen_US
dc.subject.lcshGroundwater--Sodium content--Puerto Rico--Lajasen_US
dc.titleEvaluation of ground water from the Lajas valley for low salinity culture of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannameien_US
dc.rights.licenseAll rights reserveden_US
dc.rights.holder(c) 2008 Christopher Edward Maceen_US
dc.contributor.committeeMcGee, Michael V.
dc.contributor.committeeWilliams, Ernest H.
dc.contributor.committeePérez Alegría, Luis R.
dc.contributor.committeeAponte, Nilda E.
dc.contributor.representativeBunkley-Williams, Lucy Sciencesen_US
dc.contributor.collegeCollege of Arts and Sciences - Sciencesen_US
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Marine Sciencesen_US

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