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dc.contributor.advisorMassol-Deyá, Arturo A.
dc.contributor.authorDávila-Santiago, Lizbeth
dc.date.accessioned2018-06-06T16:18:53Z
dc.date.available2018-06-06T16:18:53Z
dc.date.issued2017
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11801/709
dc.description.abstractFor over 60 years, the Anones Lagoon at the island-municipality of Vieques, Puerto Rico, has been extensively subjected to ordnance-related pollution caused by military exercises carried out by the US Navy. After military activities ceased in 2003, several studies have shown significant levels of toxic chemicals particularly, heavy metals and explosives at the former bombing range and at the lagoon system. Due to its unique, long term history of contamination the Anones Lagoon has been designated as a Superfund site by the US Environmental Protection Agency and comprises an ideal model to understand the potential contribution of benthic microbial communities to natural attenuation. To this end, sediment samples (0-5cm) from Anones were collected in 2005 and 2014 and from two reference lagoons, Guaniquilla, (Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico) and Condado (San Juan, Puerto Rico). The former is located at a natural reserve with minimal anthropogenic impact while the later is situated within a developed urban setting. In order to characterize the total microbial communities at these sites, metagenomic DNA was extracted from sediments samples and shotgun sequenced using the Illumina Mi-Seq platform. Results showed that representatives from the Proteobacteria were prevalent in Anones (2005 and 2014) (>50%), while Condado was dominated by Bacteroidetes (68%). In contrast, Guaniquilla emerged as the location with most diverse bacterial community. Interestingly, a strong shift on the community structure of sediments retrieved from Anones was observed after 9 years period as the Euryarchaeota were enriched up to 9% and genes having functions related to bioremediation of explosives and heavy metals were significantly reduced (by 91.5%) relative to sediments collected during 2005. Furthermore, the overall microbial diversity was higher in Anones 2014. Nevertheless, five novel genomes were uncovered by binning in sediment samples retrieved from Anones during 2005, which could represent new genera. Describing benthic microbial community of Anones after military perturbation can help understand which microbes are present and what functions are undergoing in order to lead to natural attenuation processes and its potential contribution as bioindicators for the restoration of this lagoon and similarly impacted sites by military activities.en_US
dc.description.abstractPor 60 años, La Laguna de Anones en la isla municipio de Vieques, Puerto Rico, estuvo expuesta a contaminación relacionada a artillería por intenso entrenamiento militar de parte de la Marina de Guerra de Estados Unidos. Luego que las actividades militares cesaran en el 2003, varios estudios han demostrado niveles significativos de químicos tóxicos, particularmente, metales pesados y explosivos en el antiguo polígono de tiro, incluyendo la Laguna Anones. Dado a su único trasfondo prolongado de contaminación, la Laguna Anones pasó a ser designada como un “Superfund site” por la Agencia de Protección Ambiental de EE.UU (USEPA), y comprende un modelo ideal para entender el potencial de contribución de la comunidad microbiana en la atenuación natural de la laguna. Se colectaron muestras de sedimento superficial (0-5cm) de la Laguna Anones en el 2005 y 2014, además de dos lagunas de referencia, Guaniquilla (Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico) y Condado (San Juan, Puerto Rico). Guaniquilla es una reserva natural con mínimo impacto antropogénico, mientras que Condado está localizada en un área urbana. Para describir las comunidades microbianas de las lagunas, ADN metagenómico se extrajo del sedimento y se secuenció con Illumina, utilizando la plataforma Mi-Seq. Los resultados demostraron que bacterias provenientes del filo Proteobacteria dominaron en las muestras de Anones (2005 y 2014) (>50%), mientras que Condado estaba dominada por Bacteroidetes (68%). A diferencia, Guaniquilla resultó ser la laguna con más diversidad bacteriana. Interesantemente, un cambio marcado se observó en la estructura microbiana del sedimento de Anones luego de 9 años. El filo Euryarchaeota se enriqueció hasta un 9% y genes con funciones relacionados a la biodegradación de explosivos y resistencia a metales pesados se redujeron significativamente (por 91.5%) en comparación con 2005. Además, la diversidad microbiana en Anones 2014 resultó ser mayor. No obstante, cinco genomas fueron recuperados por binning en las muestra de sedimento de Anones (2005), los cuales podrían representar un nuevo género. Describir comunidades microbianas de Anones luego de un disturbio militar puede ayudar a entender cuáles son los microorganismos que están presentes y qué funciones metabólicas están llevando acabo para llegar a procesos de atenuación natural y cuál sería su contribución como bioindicadores para la restauración de esta laguna y otros lugares similarmente impactados por prácticas militares.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.subjectMilitary impacted lagoonen_US
dc.subjectSediment microbial communitiesen_US
dc.subjectMetagenomic analysisen_US
dc.subject.lcshMetagenomicsen_US
dc.subject.lcshMicrobial genomicsen_US
dc.subject.lcshMarine sediments--Microbiology--Puerto Rico--Viequesen_US
dc.subject.lcshBombing and gunnery ranges--Environmental aspects--Puerto Rico--Viequesen_US
dc.subject.lcshIndicators (Biology)en_US
dc.titleMetagenomic analysis of sediment microbial communities from a military impacted lagoon (Vieques, Puerto Rico)en_US
dc.typeThesisen_US
dc.rights.licenseAll rights reserveden_US
dc.rights.holder(c) 2017 Lizbeth Dávila-Santiagoen_US
dc.contributor.committeeDeLeón-Rodríguez, Natasha I.
dc.contributor.committeeRodríguez-Minguela, Carlos M.
dc.contributor.representativeDe La Rosa Ricciardi, Evi
thesis.degree.levelM.S.en_US
thesis.degree.disciplineBiologyen_US
dc.contributor.collegeCollege of Arts and Sciences - Sciencesen_US
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Biologyen_US
dc.description.graduationYear2017en_US


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